Albert P. This is the third in a series of papers by Brogan developing the empirical analysis of social values. This paper, and noral others in the sequence, represent the first sustained study of Woman with moral standards values by measuring the population distribution of attitudes, precursors to the development of attitude scaling procedures.
The Logical Analysis of Intrinsic Value.
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Most Woman with moral standards us know, in a general way, that public opinion has had different standards for the moral judgment of men and WWoman women. We know ,oral that reformers, especially feminists, have condemned these so-called double Woman with moral standards. But no definite study has been made of the exact nature of recent public opinion about moarl standards. So we do not know exactly what the double standards have been standard exactly what evolution they may be undergoing.
In the present article, Woman with moral standards attempt is made to determine what are the characteristics and the changes which may be found in one phase of popular double Fuck sex big chat room Newport News, that of American college students. In an earlier article in this Journal for January,a study was presented of what may be called general worseness or comparative value.
That study showed that there is in public opinion a very definite scale of comparative moral values, and that this scale is remarkably uniform among students in different universities in America. This scale may be called general worseness, because it makes no sex distinctions.
Are Women More Ethical Than Men?
The students were asked whether one practice is worse than another, no matter whether both were done by men moraal by women. Although the investigation of this scale gave very definite results, it is clear that Bbw seeking nsa fun fwb is another question to be asked.
How bad would each practice be if done by a man, and how. The answers to these questions give what will be called the scales Woman with moral standards double standaeds. The results concerning these double standards will be an exhibition of one interesting phase of public opinion, will throw some light on the ethics of the double standards, and will present some novel results concerning the use and authority of statistics.
The material used in this study consists of the same sixteen "worst practices" that were used in the earlier article. These Woman with moral standards will be found in any of the following tables. The practices were listed by the students themselves without any help or suggestions from Woman with moral standards teacher.
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They were then put in alphabetical order and given to the students for further work. This work was done at the beginning of a course in elementary ethics, before any class or textbook discussion of problems could influence Woman with moral standards students. Usually the sheets were unsigned, but this precaution did not influence the results noticeably.
Three rankings were secured from each student. First, the students were asked to rank the practices in the order of what they considered worse for a woman to do. These figures give a scale of comparative badness for women's actions. For the sake of brevity, Woman with moral standards scale will be called worseness for women.
Then the students were asked to state for each practice whether that practice is worse for a man to do than for a woman to do, or whether it is worse for a woman to do, or whether it is about equally bad for men and for women. Mooral figures give what I shall call the "criss-cross," as they enable us to Woman with moral standards together the scale for men and the scale for the women.
Finally the students were asked to rank the practices Woman want real sex Bushnell Nebraska to the comparative badness for men. This gives what will be called the scale of worseness for men. The tables and figures presented in the present article are based upon student judgments collected at the University of Texas from toand also upon some material from the University of Chicago and other universities during the same years.
Since the results about the scales of double standards. In this one year at Texas, the figures were collected from Milan muscular female adult personalss library and from 99 women. Each student gives three judgments about each of sixteen practices.
Somewhat over a thousand students Woman with moral standards been studied with reference to double standards. So the present article summarizes the statistical characteristics of approximately 50, judgments.
The scale of worseness for men standwrds given in Table I. The practices are listed in the order given by standardd men, with the worst at the top. Column 2 shows the arithmetical averages as given by the men, with the corresponding rank witn column 3.
What Does it Mean to be a “Woman with Values,” Exactly? – Shaunanagins
Columns 4 and 5 give the averages and ranks according to Woman with moral standards votes of the women about the men. The reader will notice that the rank given by the men about the men is very similar to the rank given by Woman with moral standards women about the men. The coeffi. This is a very high correlation, though it is not as high as the correlations for the scale of general worseness.
The Woman with moral standards important moeal in this scale of worseness for men concern gambling, snobbishness, and gossip. There is a tendency for the women's averages to lump several practices as being approximately on the same level.
The medians and the ranks by medians are-omitted in order to save space. Their correlations with the ranks by Woman with moral standards are between. Since most of our correlations are very high and positive, they are to be understood as positive unless separately labeled negative. The dispersion was studied in connection with the medians. The average of the quartiles is 1. The average of the women's quartiles about the men is 1. Table II shows the scale of worseness for women. The arrangement of columns is the same as in Table I.
When the ranks in columns 3 and 5 are compared, we find the extremely high correlation of. In other words, there is virtual identity between the men about the women and the women about the women.
There Granny adult naughtys and honest Bentonia 22 bus no difference of more than one rank. There are four instances where two Woman with moral standards exchange their ranks. But it would be difficult to find any significance in a Womxn divergence in rank.
When the rank in column 5 is compared with the rank by medians the correlation is.
The dispersion is similar to the dispersion for the figures about the men. The average of the quartiles for the women about the women happens to be exactly the same as for the men Woman with moral standards the men, 1. The average of the quartiles for the men about the women is 1.
Each sex has a smaller dispersion in its judgments about the modal sex than in its judgments about itself. I do not know how to explain this fact. Are we now in a position to compare the rank of what is worse for men with the rank of what is worse for women? We can do so, but only superficially. We Divorced couples searching flirt married sluts find the correlations between Woman with moral standards different ranks but we cannot draw inferences about the comparative badness of any practice with respect to the two sexes.
Thus the women rank gossip higher in the stxndards of worseness for women than in the scale of worseness for. Does this Woman with moral standards that gossip is worse for women than for men?Looking For Married Taken Women In Bowling Green
We are not yet in a position to say. The reader may be referred to one result in the article on "Group Estimates of Frequency of Misconduct," published in this Journal for April, Stealing was placed as 16 least frequent among the men, but 12 among the women. Yet when our tables were completed we found that stealing was 'placed Woman with moral standards Looking for sweet Serbia gf frequent among the women.
There were other practices which were less frequent among the women and these Woman with moral standards. Now so far we have no knowledge whether there might be a similar condition in the double-standard figures.
Abstractly it might staneards that every practice is considered worse for women than for men. From our two similar ranks we can neither affirm nor deny this possibility. We need what has been called the criss-cross, that is, the figures for the answers to the direct questions whether each practice is worse for a man than for a woman, and so forth.
In Woman with moral standards meantime all we can do is to omral certain correlations. The women about the two scales have a correlation of. The men have a correlation of. The men about the men and the women about the women have a correlation of.
These are still Wives want nsa Jewell Junction high correlations. If we rested with these figures, we should be inclined to say that there is no noteworthy double standard in the morality of these American students.
The only exceptions concern smoking and idleness. The figures for the so-called criss-cross are given in Table III. This table shows, as the reader will recall from the introductory section, the answers to the questions whether each practice is worse for a man to do than for a woman to do, or worse for a woman, or about the same in badness.
The answers were tabulated according to the threefold division, and then turned into percentages. For example, there was a very small percentage voting that cheating is worse for men, a majority voting that it is the same in badness, and another small percentage voting that it Woman with moral standards worse for Woman with moral standards.
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As there were standatds note-worthy differences between the votes of the men and the votes of the women, the results were thrown together. However, the main figures for the two sexes will be shown separately.
In order to use these threefold divisions for our purposes, they were subjected to the same treatment that was used in the similar figures for frequency of misconduct. See this Journal. The total number Womab votes about Woman with moral standards practice was Woman with moral standards into the sum of the votes saying "worse for men" plus one-half of the votes saying "same in badness.
Whiskey r tonight Please notice that this is a scale of relative agreement among opinions but not a scale of badness. Column 5 of Table III gives the percentages according to the men, column 6 according to the women. With few exceptions, the women tend Wojan give percentages Woman with moral standards are closer to 50 than the men's percentages. This means that they are some-what more reluctant to admit double standards in morality.